Designing a Shariah-compliant Metaverse

Defining the Metaverse

Metaverse is a combination of the prefix “meta”, meaning beyond, and “universe”. A simple way to appreciate ‘the Metaverse’ is simply to think cyberspace or virtual worlds. It is being argued as the next big disruptive wave in current technology and internet experience. And as such, it is a leap in the internet and online experience that we know, taking 2D to 3D, and potentially 4D. Silicon Valley metaverse proponents sometimes reference a description from venture capitalist Matthew Ball, author of the extensive Metaverse Primer as a definition of the Metaverse:

“The Metaverse is an expansive network of persistent, real-time rendered 3D worlds and simulations that support continuity of identity, objects, history, payments, and entitlements, and can be experienced synchronously by an effectively unlimited number of users, each with an individual sense of presence.”[1]

Meta, arguably the tech company with the biggest stake in the metaverse, describes it more simply:

“The ‘metaverse’ is a set of virtual spaces where you can create and explore with other people who aren’t in the same physical space as you.”

Although it is novel to consider the Metaverse as one ‘meta’-verse with multiple virtual worlds, big corporations are racing to build their own metaverses, whilst decentralised platforms are facilitating decentralised virtual world development. The buzz and hype around the Metaverse was the idea that it would be a collection of virtual worlds or environments, which are interconnected by a principle of openness, which enables seamless movement, and transfer of assets. However, with the opportunity that exists and the potential profits, several companies are developing a metaverse or a metaverse-y concept in some way. There are companies building a fashion metaverse, an industrial metaverse, an entertainment metaverse, a gaming metaverse, a shark metaverse and many others[2].

To offer an immersive virtual experience, tech companies are incorporating cutting-edge technologies to power the 3D world’s development. Such technologies include blockchain and crypto-assets, augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR), 3D reconstruction, artificial intelligence (AI), and the Internet of things (IoT)[3]. At present, metaverses can be accessed through VR headsets, PCs, game consoles and phones.

Properties of the Metaverse

 Those tech industry figures who talk about “the metaverse” are usually excited about digital platforms that include some of the following things:

  • Feature sets that overlap with older web services or real-world activities
  • Real-time 3D computer graphics and personalised avatars
  • A variety of person-to-person social interactions that are less competitive and goal-oriented than stereotypical games
  • Support for users creating their own virtual items and environments
  • Links with outside economic systems so people can profit from virtual goods
  • Designs that seem well-suited to virtual and augmented reality headsets, even if they usually support other hardware as well

But in most current discourse, “the metaverse” arguably isn’t a fixed set of attributes. It’s an aspirational term for a future digital world that feels more tangibly connected to our real lives and bodies[4].

The Ideas Behind the Metaverse

To shape up the metaverse as a digital economy enabling socialising and a marketplace with the movement of digital goods, digital capital, digital people and provision of services, there are several underlying ideas involved in the metaverse:

  1. Virtual reality – this idea is about immersion in another reality and the increased presence in a virtual realm. This is one of the most important characteristics of any metaverse.
  2. People – this idea is about the digital representation of people in the metaverse, which then allows the digital economy to be meaningful. The metaverse is social by design.
  3. Markets – this idea is what allows the exchange of goods and services, and incentivises people to get involved in the metaverse. The opportunity for monetisation incentivises.
  4. Persistence – this idea is about the metaverse being available and existing even when you are not in it. Things are happening, transactions are taking places, events are occurring in your absence[5].
  5. Connection to the real world – this idea is about the ability of the metaverse to intertwine with the real world through augmented reality.
  6. Goods – this idea is about the ability to trade and transact digital goods and real goods through the metaverse, spurring an economy.
  7. Services – this idea is about the provision of services and infrastructure in the metaverse, incentivising developers to provide services and build the metaverse.
  8. Capital – this idea is about the flow of capital and funds in the metaverse, ensuring that the metaverse has an independent fully-functional currency.

Metaverse and the Digital Economy

Arguably, the most exciting and incentivising appeal of the metaverse concept is the birth of a fully functioning digital economy. The goal is for users to create, buy, and sell goods. The metaverse is facilitating the birth of a fully functioning, persistent and real time digital market, allowing a new kind of decentralised digital asset to be built, owned and monetised. All this is being powered for the most part, by blockchain technology, using crypto-assets as the medium of exchange, and non-fungible tokens (NFTs) for the goods and services of the digital economy.

Examples of Metaverses

Two common examples of metaverses in use today are Roblox and Decentraland. Roblox is used by millions of (mostly young) people around the world, who create an avatar and interact in a user-generated 3D world. Players can create their own games as well as buy, sell and create virtual items which can be used to decorate their avatar.

Decentraland is a user-owned, Ethereum-based virtual world where you can play, explore, and interact with games and activities. You can also purchase parcels of land on which to build your own environments, marketplaces, and applications. Decentraland’s value proposition to application developers is that they can fully capitalise on the economic interactions between their applications and users. A key economic concept of Decentraland and other metaverses is adjacency of land. All metaverse parcels are contiguous to others at a fixed location – within a finite geography. This creates scarcity due to the limited amount of property supply. And scarcity enables property value to rise and fall, based on universal laws of supply and demand. NFTs enable the property transactions that drive the metaverse. These tokens provide indisputable proof of ownership that is more secure than any land deed[6].

Shariah Considerations

Our approach to the metaverse or to any technology should be proactive and we should be co-creating technology that is beneficial for humanity, in line with Shariah principles. The principle in Shariah is that “everything is permissible unless there is a clear prohibition”[7]. What this principle does is that it actually encourages us to be innovative and creative. There is a push to be entrepreneurial and inquisitive. The fear of falling into something unlawful just because it is unknown or new is removed with this principle. Being ‘new’ does not mean we wait or hesitate, it means we engage, learn and experiment, whilst engaging with Shariah experts in the co-creation of valuable endeavours and understanding the Shariah boundaries. Of course, if something non-compliant is detected, then we must abstain.

The Shariah considerations relating to the metaverse can be summed up into the following areas:

  1. Utility
  2. Real vs virtual
  3. Representations
  4. Experiences
  5. Trading

 

1.Utility

Shariah is all about benefit and utility. Whatever a person does, should bring about worldly or otherworldly benefit to them.  Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullah) states, ‘The Shariah is founded and based upon wisdoms and principles that bring value to people in this world and the otherworld.’[8] Imam al-Shatibi (rahimahullah) said that ‘the Shariah has only been revealed to establish benefit for people in this world and the next, and to save them from harm.’[9]

The Qur’an encourages believers to stay away from Laghw. Imam al-Razi explains this by pursuits which are frivolous, aimless, futile and unproductive[10]. Of course, this makes complete sense. If we take a holistic view of life, we have a very clear reason for existence, a finite resource of time, and an impending accountability in the next life.

Although Shariah encourages us to be entrepreneurial and creative in trade and business in order to fulfil our worldly needs, there is still a framework that governs practice. The jurists discuss how not everything can be monetised. Money should only be gained and earned from goods and services which are lawful and deemed to have a reasonable benefit. It is severely disliked to waste and squander money in activities which give no reasonable benefit, such that no reasonable person would engage in[11].

In fact, one of the underpinning properties for tradable good or service in Shariah is that it should have reasonable benefit in that item or service[12].

Considering the above in the metaverse discussion, any activity in the metaverse and any design of a Shariah-compliant metaverse should be focused on utility and benefit. Engagement with virtual reality should be value-adding and beneficial[13].

Games and activities on the metaverse which consist of the following are best avoided altogether[14]:

a. Have no genuine and reasonable benefit, and is simply done for amusement. Whilst there is flexibility in children playing games and Fatawa of scholars to support playing games on consoles with conditions, data supports the harms of addiction and over-indulgence for even children[15]. Thus, every responsible person should govern themselves and their dependents in this affair and ensure that on the balance of things, activities are in the best interests of the child insofar as their worldly and hereafter is concerned.

b. Shariah non-compliant elements.

2. Real vs virtual

Engagement with any activity should not impact one’s obligations. This rule applies to engagements with the metaverse too. Any activity which impacts Shariah obligations whether that is prayer or rights of people, then that activity will become impermissible due to this external factor[16].

3. Representations

Designing avatars and concepts in the metaverse should not compose any of the following:

  1. Anything unlawful to see in Shariah
  2. Anything sacred in Shariah which it prohibited to portray such as the Allah, the Prophets etc.
  3. Ridiculing or disfiguring of other people
  4. Limbs and areas which the Shariah orders to be covered and concealed.

Similarly, there should be honesty in one’s identity. Fake identities or misrepresenting others should also be abstained from.

4. Experiences

When developing or hosting events in the metaverse, such events should not be composed of anything unlawful in Shariah. Hence, building nightclubs, casinos and similar experiences or engaging in such events in a metaverse would not be Shariah compliant.

For a Shariah-based metaverse, the experiences should be educational, inspirational, motivational and spiritual. A rule of thumb is that whatever is typically permissible to do in the world is generally permissible to do in the metaverse.

5. Trading

Any transaction which results in a transfer of something whether in the real world or digital world, must be according to Shariah principles. Hence, all the prohibitions of Shariah apply in the metaverse too, such as Riba, Gharar and so forth. A digital economy in the metaverse cannot have marketplaces with unlawful financing or Riba-based lending. Similarly, the goods and services being traded must be Shariah compliant.

Conclusion

The above five areas are the foundational blocks that need to be focused upon to develop a Shariah compliant metaverse. The metaverse in and of itself is not prohibited. Rather, the engagement should be meaningful. Shariah is about adding meaning in life, and therefore, any activity performed by a Muslim should be about meaning. Earning money should be done in an honourable way, without harming others and cheating others. A Shariah-based metaverse would be value-adding for everyone, Muslim or non-Muslim, since the Shariah has values which are of benefit for humanity and the entire world.

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[1] https://www.theverge.com/22701104/metaverse-explained-fortnite-roblox-facebook-horizon

[2] https://www.protocol.com/newsletters/sourcecode/too-many-metaverses?rebelltitem=1#rebelltitem1

[3] https://academy.binance.com/en/articles/top-7-technologies-that-power-the-metaverse

[4] https://www.theverge.com/22701104/metaverse-explained-fortnite-roblox-facebook-horizon

[5] https://theconversation.com/metaverse-five-things-to-know-and-what-it-could-mean-for-you-171061

[6] https://www.ft.com/partnercontent/crypto-com/nfts-the-metaverse-economy.html

[7] مَطْلَبٌ الْمُخْتَارُ أَنَّ الْأَصْلَ فِي الْأَشْيَاءِ الْإِبَاحَةُ

أَقُولُ: وَصَرَّحَ فِي التَّحْرِيرِ بِأَنَّ الْمُخْتَارَ أَنَّ الْأَصْلَ الْإِبَاحَةُ عِنْدَ الْجُمْهُورِ مِنْ الْحَنَفِيَّةِ وَالشَّافِعِيَّةِ اهـ وَتَبِعَهُ تِلْمِيذُهُ الْعَلَّامَةُ قَاسِمٌ، وَجَرَى عَلَيْهِ فِي الْهِدَايَةِ مِنْ فَصْلِ الْحِدَادِ، وَفِي الْخَانِيَّةِ مِنْ أَوَائِلِ الْحَظْرِ وَالْإِبَاحَةِ. وَقَالَ فِي شَرْحِ التَّحْرِيرِ: وَهُوَ قَوْلُ مُعْتَزِلَةِ الْبَصْرَةِ وَكَثِيرٍ مِنْ الشَّافِعِيَّةِ وَأَكْثَرِ الْحَنَفِيَّةِ لَا سِيَّمَا الْعِرَاقِيِّينَ. قَالُوا: وَإِلَيْهِ أَشَارَ مُحَمَّدٌ فِيمَنْ هَدَّدَ بِالْقَتْلِ عَلَى أَكْلِ الْمَيْتَةِ أَوْ شُرْبِ الْخَمْرِ فَلَمْ يَفْعَلْ حَتَّى قُتِلَ بِقَوْلِهِ: خِفْت أَنْ يَكُونَ آثِمًا؛ لِأَنَّ أَكْلَ الْمَيْتَةِ وَشُرْبَ الْخَمْرِ لَمْ يُحَرَّمَا إلَّا بِالنَّهْيِ عَنْهُمَا، فَجَعَلَ الْإِبَاحَةَ أَصْلًا وَالْحُرْمَةَ بِعَارِضِ النَّهْيِ. اهـ. (حاشية ابن عابدين)

[8]  إِنَّ الشَّرِيعَةَ مَبْنَاهَا وَأَسَاسُهَا عَلَى الْحِكَمِ وَمَصَالِحِ الْعِبَادِ فِي الْمَعَاشِ وَالْمَعَادِ. (إعلام الموقعين)

[9]   والشريعة ما وضعت الا لتحقيق مصالح العباد في العاجل والآجل ودرء المفاسد عنهم (الموافقات)

[10] الصِّفَةُ الثّالِثَةُ: قَوْلُهُ تَعالى: ﴿والَّذِينَ هم عَنِ اللَّغْوِ مُعْرِضُونَ﴾ وفي اللَّغْوِ أقْوالٌ.
أحَدُها: أنَّهُ يَدْخُلُ فِيهِ كُلُّ ما كانَ حَرامًا أوْ مَكْرُوهًا أوْ كانَ مُباحًا، ولَكِنْ لا يَكُونُ بِالمَرْءِ إلَيْهِ ضَرُورَةٌ وحاجَةٌ.
وثانِيها: أنَّهُ عِبارَةٌ عَنْ كُلِّ ما كانَ حَرامًا فَقَطْ، وهَذا التَّفْسِيرُ أخَصُّ مِنَ الأوَّلِ.
وثالِثُها: أنَّهُ عِبارَةٌ عَنِ المَعْصِيَةِ في القَوْلِ والكَلامِ خاصَّةً، وهَذا أخَصُّ مِنَ الثّانِي.
ورابِعُها: أنَّهُ المُباحُ الَّذِي لا حاجَةَ إلَيْهِ،  (التفسير الكبير)

[11] ويكره أن يجعل على اللحد دفوف خشب يريد به صفائح خشب توضع على اللحد؛ لأن في ذلك إضاعة المال بلا فائدة فإن اللبن يكفي، ولأن ذلك يستعمل للزينة أو لإحكام البناء، والميت غير محتاج إلى ذلك، ولكن مع هذا لو فعل لا بأس به لرخاوة الأراضي في ديارنا. (المحيط البرهاني)

(قَالَ وَكُلُّ أَحَدٍ مَنْهِيٌّ عَنْ إفْسَادِ الطَّعَامِ، وَمِنْ الْإِفْسَادِ الْإِسْرَافُ) وَهَذَا لِمَا رُوِيَ «أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – نَهَى عَنْ الْقِيلِ وَالْقَالِ وَعَنْ كَثْرَةِ السُّؤَالِ وَعَنْ إضَاعَةِ الْمَالِ»، وَفِي الْإِفْسَادِ إضَاعَةُ الْمَالِ ثُمَّ الْحَاصِلُ أَنَّهُ يَحْرُمُ عَلَى الْمَرْءِ فِيمَا اكْتَسَبَهُ مِنْ الْحَلَالِ الْإِفْسَادُ وَالسَّرَفُ وَالْخُيَلَاءُ وَالتَّفَاخُرُ وَالتَّكَاثُرُ، أَمَّا الْإِفْسَادُ فَحَرَامٌ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {وَابْتَغِ فِيمَا آتَاكَ اللَّهُ الدَّارَ الْآخِرَةَ} [القصص: 77] الْآيَةَ، وَأَمَّا السَّرَفُ فَحَرَامٌ لِقَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى {وَلَا تُسْرِفُوا} [الأنعام: 141] الْآيَةَ وَقَالَ جَلَّ وَعَلَا {وَاَلَّذِينَ إذَا أَنْفَقُوا} [الفرقان: 67] الْآيَةَ فَذَلِكَ دَلِيلٌ عَلَى أَنَّ الْإِسْرَافَ وَالتَّقْتِيرَ حَرَامٌ وَأَنَّ الْمَنْدُوبَ إلَيْهِ مَا بَيْنَهُمَا، وَفِي الْإِسْرَافِ تَبْذِيرٌ وَقَالَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى {وَلَا تُبَذِّرْ تَبْذِيرًا} [الإسراء: 26] ثُمَّ السَّرَفُ فِي الطَّعَامِ أَنْوَاعٌ فَمِنْ ذَلِكَ الْأَكْلُ فَوْقَ الشِّبَعِ لِقَوْلِهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – «مَا مَلَأ ابْنُ آدَمَ وِعَاءً شَرًّا مِنْ بَطْنِهِ فَإِنْ كَانَ لَا بُدَّ فَثُلُثٌ لِلطَّعَامِ وَثُلُثٌ لِلشَّرَابِ وَثُلُثٌ لِلنَّفَسِ» وَقَالَ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – «يَكْفِي ابْنَ آدَمَ لُقَيْمَاتٌ يُقِمْنَ صُلْبَهُ وَلَا يُلَامُ عَلَى كَفَافٍ»، وَلِأَنَّهُ إنَّمَا يَأْكُلُ لِمَنْفَعَةِ نَفْسِهِ، وَلَا مَنْفَعَةَ فِي الْأَكْلِ فَوْقَ الشِّبَعِ (المبسوط للسرخسي) 

[12] اسْتَأْجَرَ إنْسانٌ حِصانًا لِيَرْبِطَهُ أمامَ دارِهِ، أوْ لِيُجَنِّبَهُ، أوْ اسْتَأْجَرَ ثِيابًا لِيَضَعَها فِي بَيْتِهِ لِيَظُنَّ النّاسُ أنَّ لَهُ حِصانًا، أوْ ثِيابًا نَفِيسَةً لِيَراها النّاسُ ويَظْهَرَ بِها بِمَظْهَرِ الأغْنِياءِ فالإجارَةُ فاسِدَةٌ ولا تَجِبُ الأُجْرَةُ فِيها؛ لِأنَّها مَنفَعَةٌ غَيْرُ مَقْصُودَةٍ مِن العَيْنِ فِي الشَّرْعِ ونَظَرِ العُقَلاءِ.

ولا يَكْفِي لِصِحَّةِ الإجارَةِ أنْ تَكُونَ المَنفَعَةُ مَقْصُودَةً لِلْمُسْتَأْجِرِ، بَلْ لا بُدَّ أنْ يَكُونَ فِيها مَنفَعَةٌ مَقْصُودَةٌ فِي الشَّرْعِ ونَظَرِ العُقَلاءِ. (درر الحكام شرح مجلة الأحكام)

(وَلَنَا) : أَنَّ الْكَلْبَ مَالٌ، فَكَانَ مَحَلًّا لِلْبَيْعِ كَالصَّقْرِ، وَالْبَازِي، وَالدَّلِيلُ عَلَى أَنَّهُ مَالٌ أَنَّهُ مُنْتَفَعٌ بِهِ حَقِيقَةً مُبَاحٌ الِانْتِفَاعُ بِهِ شَرْعًا عَلَى الْإِطْلَاقِ فَكَانَ مَالًا، وَلَا شَكَّ أَنَّهُ مُنْتَفَعٌ بِهِ حَقِيقَةً، وَالدَّلِيلُ عَلَى أَنَّهُ مُبَاحٌ الِانْتِفَاعُ بِهِ شَرْعًا عَلَى الْإِطْلَاقِ أَنَّ الِانْتِفَاعَ بِهِ بِجِهَةِ الْحِرَاسَةِ، وَالِاصْطِيَادِ مُطْلَقٌ شَرْعًا فِي الْأَحْوَالِ كُلِّهَا فَكَانَ مَحَلًّا لِلْبَيْعِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْبَيْعَ إذَا صَادَفَ مَحَلًّا مُنْتَفَعًا بِهِ حَقِيقَةً مُبَاحَ الِانْتِفَاعُ بِهِ عَلَى الْإِطْلَاقِ مَسَّتْ الْحَاجَةُ إلَى شَرْعِهِ؛ لِأَنَّ شَرْعَهُ يَقَعُ سَبَبًا، وَوَسِيلَةً لِلِاخْتِصَاصِ الْقَاطِعِ لِلْمُنَازَعَةِ إذْ الْحَاجَةُ إلَى قَطْعِ الْمُنَازَعَةِ فِيمَا يُبَاحُ الِانْتِفَاعُ بِهِ شَرْعًا عَلَى الْإِطْلَاقِ لَا فِيمَا يَجُوزُ. (بدائع الصنائع)

وَلَا يُقْطَعُ فِي التِّبْنِ، وَالْحَشِيشِ، وَالْقَصَبِ، وَالْحَطَبِ؛ لِأَنَّ النَّاسَ لَا يَتَمَوَّلُونَ هَذِهِ الْأَشْيَاءَ.

وَلَا يَظُنُّونَ بِهَا؛ لِعَدَمِ عِزَّتِهَا، وَقِلَّةِ خَطَرِهَا عِنْدَهُمْ، بَلْ يَعُدُّونَ الظِّنَّةَ بِهَا مِنْ بَابِ الْخُسَاسَةِ، فَكَانَتْ تَافِهَةً، وَلَا قَطْعَ فِي التُّرَابِ، وَالطِّينِ، وَالْجَصِّ، وَاللَّبِنِ، وَالنُّورَةِ، وَالْآجُرِّ، وَالْفَخَّارِ، وَالزُّجَاجِ؛ لِتَفَاهَتِهَا فَرَّقَ بَيْنَ التُّرَابِ، وَبَيْنَ الْخَشَبِ، حَيْثُ سَوَّى فِي التُّرَابِ بَيْنَ الْمَعْمُولِ مِنْهُ وَغَيْرِ الْمَعْمُولِ، وَفَرَّقَ فِي الْخَشَبِ؛ لِأَنَّ الصَّنْعَةَ فِي الْخَشَبِ أَخْرَجَتْهُ عَنْ حَدِّ التَّفَاهَةِ، وَالصَّنْعَةَ فِي التُّرَابِ لَمْ تُخْرِجْهُ عَنْ كَوْنِهِ تَافِهًا، يُعْرَفُ ذَلِكَ بِالرُّجُوعِ إلَى عُرْفِ النَّاسِ وَعَادَاتِهِمْ، . (بدائع الصنائع)

أَنَّ الْأَعْيَانَ إنَّمَا تَصِيرُ مَالًا بِاعْتِبَارِ الِانْتِفَاعِ بِهَا، وَمَالًا يُنْتَفَعُ بِهِ فَلَيْسَ بِمَالٍ فَإِذَا لَمْ تَصِرْ الْأَعْيَانُ مَالًا إلَّا بِاعْتِبَارِهَا فَكَيْفَ تَنْعَدِمُ الْمَالِيَّةُ فِيهَا، وَهِيَ مُتَقَوِّمَةٌ بِنَفْسِهَا؛ لِأَنَّ التَّقَوُّمَ عِبَارَةٌ عَنْ الْعِزَّةِ، وَهِيَ عَزِيزَةٌ بِنَفْسِهَا عِنْدَ النَّاسِ وَلِهَذَا يُبَدِّلُونَ الْأَعْيَانَ لِأَجْلِهَا بَلْ تُقَوَّمُ الْأَعْيَانُ بِاعْتِبَارِهَا فَيَسْتَحِيلُ أَنْ لَا تَكُونَ هِيَ مُتَقَوِّمَةٌ (تبيين الحقائق)

(قَوْلُهُ: مَالًا أَوْ لَا) إلَخْ، الْمُرَادُ بِالْمَالِ مَا يَمِيلُ إلَيْهِ الطَّبْعُ وَيُمْكِنُ ادِّخَارُهُ لِوَقْتِ الْحَاجَةِ، وَالْمَالِيَّةُ تَثْبُتُ بِتَمَوُّلِ النَّاسِ كَافَّةً أَوْ بَعْضِهِمْ، وَالتَّقَوُّمُ يَثْبُتُ بِهَا وَبِإِبَاحَةِ الِانْتِفَاعِ بِهِ شَرْعًا؛ فَمَا يُبَاحُ بِلَا تَمَوُّلٍ لَا يَكُونُ مَالًا كَحَبَّةِ حِنْطَةٍ وَمَا يُتَمَوَّلُ بِلَا إبَاحَةِ انْتِفَاعٍ لَا يَكُونُ مُتَقَوِّمًا كَالْخَمْرِ، وَإِذَا عُدِمَ الْأَمْرَانِ لَمْ يَثْبُتْ وَاحِدٌ مِنْهُمَا كَالدَّمِ بَحْرٌ مُلَخَّصًا عَنْ الْكَشْفِ الْكَبِيرِ.

وَحَاصِلُهُ أَنَّ الْمَالَ أَعَمُّ مِنْ الْمُتَمَوَّلِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْمَالَ مَا يُمْكِنُ ادِّخَارُهُ وَلَوْ غَيْرَ مُبَاحٍ كَالْخَمْرِ، وَالْمُتَقَوِّمُ مَا يُمْكِنُ ادِّخَارُهُ مَعَ الْإِبَاحَةِ، فَالْخَمْرُ مَالٌ لَا مُتَقَوِّمٌ، فَلِذَا فَسَدَ الْبَيْعُ بِجَعْلِهَا ثَمَنًا، وَإِنَّمَا لَمْ يَنْعَقِدْ أَصْلًا بِجَعْلِهَا مَبِيعًا؛ لِأَنَّ الثَّمَنَ غَيْرُ مَقْصُودٍ بَلْ وَسِيلَةٌ إلَى الْمَقْصُودِ، إذْ الِانْتِفَاعُ بِالْأَعْيَانِ لَا بِالْأَثْمَانِ، وَلِهَذَا اُشْتُرِطَ وُجُودُ الْمَبِيعِ دُونَ الثَّمَنِ (حاشية ابن عابدين)

 

[13]   وَاخْتَلَفُوا فِي التَّغَنِّي الْمُجَرَّدِ قَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ: إنَّهُ حَرَامٌ مُطْلَقًا وَالِاسْتِمَاعُ إلَيْهِ مَعْصِيَةٌ لِإِطْلَاقِ الْحَدِيثِ وَهُوَ اخْتِيَارُ شَيْخِ الْإِسْلَامِ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ قَالَ: لَا بَأْسَ بِهِ لِيَسْتَفِيدَ بِهِ فَهْمَ الْمَعَانِي وَالْفَصَاحَةَ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ جَوَّزَ التَّغَنِّيَ لِدَفْعِ الْوَحْشَةِ إذَا كَانَ وَحْدَهُ وَلَا يَكُونُ عَلَى سَبِيلِ اللَّهْوِ، وَإِلَيْهِ ذَهَبَ شَمْسُ الْأَئِمَّةِ السَّرَخْسِيُّ لِأَنَّهُ رَوَى ذَلِكَ عَنْ بَعْضِ الصَّحَابَةِ وَلَوْ كَانَ فِي الشِّعْرِ حِكَمٌ، أَوْ قِصَّةٌ لَا يُكْرَهُ وَكَذَا لَوْ كَانَ فِيهِ ذِكْرُ امْرَأَةٍ غَيْرِ مُعَيَّنَةٍ وَكَذَا لَوْ كَانَتْ مُعَيَّنَةً وَهِيَ مَيِّتَةٌ وَلَوْ كَانَتْ حَيَّةً يُكْرَهُ كَذَا فِي الشَّارِحِ. (البحر الرائق)

قَالَ أَبُو يُوسُفَ – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى – مَنْ لَعِبَ بِالصَّوْلَجَانِ يُرِيدُ الْفُرُوسَةَ جَازَتْ شَهَادَتُهُ، كَذَا فِي الْمُلْتَقَطِ  (الهندية)

[14]  فالضابط في هذا الباب عند مشايخنا الحنفية المستفاد من أصولهم وأقوالهم أن اللهو المجرد الذي لا طائل تحته وليس له غرض صحيح مفيد في المعاش ولا المعاد حرام أو مكروه تحريما وهذا أمر مجمع عليه في الأمة متفق عليه بين الأئمة وما كان فيه غرض ومصلحة دينية أو دنيوية فإن ورد النهي عنه  من الكتاب أو السنة (كما في النردشير) كان حراما أو مكروها تحريما وألغيت تلك المصلحة والغرض لمعارضتها للنهي المأثور حكما بأن ضرره أعظم من نفعه وأما ما لم يرد فيه النهي عن الشارع وفيه فائدة ومصلحة للناس فهو بالنظر الفقهي على نوعين:

الأول ما شهدت التجربة بأن ضرره أعظم من نفعه ومفاسده أغلب على منافعه وأنه من اشتغل به ألهاه عن ذكر الله وحده وعن الصلوات والمساجد التحق ذلك بالمنهي عنه لإشتراك العلة فكان حراما أو مكروها

والثاني ما ليس كذلك فهو أيضا إن اشتغل به بنية التلهي والتلاعب فهو مكروه وإن اشتغل به لتحصيل تلك المنفعة وبنية استجلاب المصلحة فهو مباح بل قد يرتقي إلى درجة الإستحباب أو أعظم منه وعلى هذا الأصل فالألعاب التي يقصد بها رياضة الأبدان أو الأذهان جائزة في نفسها ما لم تشمل على معصية أخرى وما لم يؤد الإنهماك فيها إلى الإخلال بواجب الإنسان في دينه ودنياه والله سبحانه أعلم (تكملة فتح الملهم) 

ان اللهو علي أنواع: لهو مجرد ، ولهو فيه نفع وفائدة ولكن ورد الشرع بالنهي عنه ، ولهو فيه فائدة ولم يرد في الشرع نهي صريح عنه ، ولكنه ثبت بالتجربة أنه يكون ضرره أعظم من نفعه ملتحق بالمنهي عنه ، ولهو فيه فائدة ولم يرد الشرع بتحريمه ولم يغلب علي نفعه ضرره ولكن يشتغل فيه بقصد التلهي ، ولهو فيه فائدة مقصودة ولم يرد الشرع بتحريمه وليس فيه مفسدة دينية واشتغل به علي غرض صحيح لتحصيل الفائدة المطلوبة لا بقصد التلهي . فهذه خمسة أنواع لا جائز فيها إلا الأخير الخامس (أحكام القرآن)

 

[15] https://childmind.org/article/healthy-limits-on-video-games/

https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/the-health-effects-of-too-much-gaming-2020122221645

[16]   وَلَا إخْلَالٍ بِحِفْظِ الْوَاجِبَاتِ (تبيين الحقائق)

وإذا كان الرجل يلعب بشيء من الملاهي وذلك لا يشغله عن الصّلاة، ولا عمّا (120أ4) يلزمه من الفرائض، ينظر: إن كانت يستشقيه بين الناس، كالمزامير والطنابير لم تجز شهادته؛ لأن أصحاب هذه الملاهي أهل فسق فيما بين الناس، وإن لم يكن يستشقيه نحو الحد أو ضرب القضيب جازت شهادتهم، (المحيط البرهاني)